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PHILADELPHIA – Any cat lover who has watched an allergic friend react to a loved one knows the dark forces that lurk within this luxurious cat fur. Within minutes, an allergic person exposed to a cat can start sneezing and wheezing. Eyes watery and itchy. The misery is obvious.
Solutions for people who want to be around cats despite allergies are labor intensive, of questionable value, and sometimes contrary to common sense. How many trips to the emergency room would there be if we all tried to bathe our cats frequently?
This predicament sparked the imagination of researchers who see a lucrative market for better solutions in a country with more than 50 million cats in more than 20 million households. Some scientists are now taking a different approach to human pet allergies. Instead of trying to change allergic people or their surroundings, they are trying to change cats.
Purina began competing in the early days of the pandemic with a cat food – Pro Plan LiveClear – that is said to be able to reduce the protein that most allergy sufferers are sensitive to by 47% after three weeks.
“For me as a veterinarian, this is truly a groundbreaking and revolutionary pet food,” said Kurt Venator, Purina Chief Veterinary Officer. “We really believe this will help cats and people get closer.”
Another research group in Switzerland is working on a vaccine against the attacking protein called Fel d 1. And a team from Indoor Biotechnologies in Virginia is researching CRISPR gene editing techniques to turn off the gene that makes up Fel d 1. These two projects are years away from being realized.
Indoor Biotechnologies primarily detects, tests and cleans allergens. Martin Chapman, its president and CEO, had a long interest in cat allergens, but a fake company that marketed fake hypoallergenic cats until around 2015 caught his attention.
“It found there was a market for cats that would cost up to $ 7,000 apiece,” said Chapman, a former professor of medicine and microbiology at the University of Virginia.
While some cats may end up in shelters because allergy sufferers cannot live with them, there is no doubt that many often prefer their cat to the comfort of their own, allergists said. They said it was rare for an allergic cat owner to abandon the cat or even ban it from the bedroom.
“I haven’t really met patients willing to get rid of their cats,” said Patrick Gleeson, an allergist with Penn Medicine. On the new cat food, he added, “I think there is a huge market for this product.”
Fel d 1 is produced in the saliva, skin and anal glands of cats and is found in their tears. Cats spread it when they clean themselves. It writhes all over the house when they lose fur or flakes of skin. All cats manage, including hairless cats, although the amounts vary from cat to cat or even from day to day. Bruce Kornreich, director of the Cornell Feline Health Center, said there is evidence that uncastrated male cats make more of it than females or neutered males. There is no such thing as a hypoallergenic cat.
Purina says its tests show its foods are safe.
LiveClear is already available in six flavors, including Weight Management, Senior and Sensitive Stomach. Chewy.com sells a 3.5 pound bag for $ 21.58. (A similar sized bag of non-specialized cat food could cost less than $ 10.) Allergen-reducing kitten food is coming in September, Venator said.
Saiba Animal Health, a Swiss company originally known as HypoPet, is going a very different route. They are working on a vaccine that will target the cat’s immune system against Fel d 1 proteins. The company’s research has shown that the HypoCat experimental vaccine lowers Fel d 1 in cat ruptures and reduces symptoms in 10 allergic cat owners.
Saiba also hopes to make a vaccine for dogs.
Kornreich said one concern with this type of vaccine is an improper immune response. “There is always a concern that the immune system can be stimulated to neutralize things that are not the target of interest,” he said.
In terms of the genetic approach, Indoor Biotechnologies’ Brackett achieved a 55% efficiency in eliminating Fel d 1 in a cat cell line. That’s a good price, she and Chapman said. “Cat cells are notoriously difficult to handle,” Brackett said.
The next step will be to see if they can reduce the allergen in cats’ salivary glands. Then comes the really hard part: figuring out how genetic treatment can be done on embryos or adult cats. You will keep an eye on the techniques that other CRISPR researchers are testing.
“Right now there seems to be a significant hurdle for CRISPR,” said Chapman.
Knighton, the Philadelphia veterinarian, said she was more comfortable with the special food that Fel d 1 neutralizes after the cat has done it than with major biological changes in cats. “I’m very careful with something that tells your body to attack something your body is doing,” she said.
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