Nafaa Alzobaidi, 1 Huma Quasimi, 2 Nasr A Emad, 3 Abdulsalam Alhalmi, 4 Maaz Naqvi 1
1 Department of Pharmacology, Hamdard Institute for Medical Sciences and Research (HIMSR), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 2 Department of Physiology, Hamdard Institute for Medical Sciences and Research (HIMSR), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 3 Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 4 Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Aden University, Aden, Yemen
Correspondence: Abdulsalam Alhalmi
Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Aden University, Aden, Yemen
E-mail [email protected]
Abstract: Dementia is a term that encompasses a group of clinical symptoms that affect memory, thinking, and social skills and are characterized by progressive impairment of memory and cognitive functions. There are several factors involved in the pathogenesis and progression of dementia, such as: B. Age, brain ischemia, toxin exposure, and oxidative stress. There are wide-ranging similarities between dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), either in clinical manifestations or in animal models. AD is the most dominant form of dementia, characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein and cholinergic neurotransmission deficits in the brain. Currently available drugs to treat dementia such as cholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists (memantine) are short-term effective and only relieve symptoms rather than targeting the main underlying pathogenesis. Several animal studies and clinical studies are being conducted to find a rational approach for these medicinal plants in preventing or treating memory deficits. This overview sheds light on the possible effects of medicinal plants and their derived lead molecules and explains the associated mechanisms and effects, which from the published literature are considered to be the main thrust aspects and promising strategies in the prevention or treatment of dementia.
Keywords: cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, dementia, medicinal plants, bioactive compounds